What is Genomics as Opposed to Genetics?

Just what is genomics? Most people have some idea as to what genetics is all about, or are at least familiar with the term. Introduce genomics into a conversation however and you’re apt to get a blank stare. There are those who use the two terms interchangeably, thinking they mean the same thing, but that’s not quite true, even though there is a definite relationship.


It’s All in the Genes


When we think of genetics, we usually think of it in terms of heredity. We inherit our ancestor’s genes, both the good ones and the not so good ones. When the conversation in about genetics, it most often is about individual genes and what their role is in heredity.


If genetics focuses on matters of heredity then, just what is genomics, and what is its focus? If you haven’t heard the term before, you still very likely have run across the term genome, specifically the human genome. A genome is much more complex than a gene, because it is a collection of genes. The human genome is in fact a collection of all of the genes that make up a given organism, whether that organism is human or something else.



What is Bioinformatics?

What is Bioinformatics? A Guide to Biological Technology

What is bioinformatics? This is a question that one probably wouldn’t ponder unless the word “bioinformatics” were to come up in conversation or read about in an article. Bioinformatics is a specific research and development field dealing with technology that organizes, stores, and retrieves biological information. On top of that, bioinformatics technology may also process certain types of biological information on a level that would be highly difficult for humans to interpret and process by hand. Comparing and matching DNA sequences and pinpointing genome mutations are just part of what bioinformatics has a hand in.

Home Remedies for Kidney Stones

Whenever I work in the lab, I don’t like to be disturbed as much as possible even with personal necessities. So I sometimes hold myself and avoid urinating even if I wanted to until I have finished my experiment. But I was afraid it could take a toll on my health.

One of the health problems I fear having is developing kidney stones. Kidney stones develop from the chemicals found in the urine such as the phosphorus, uric acid, oxalic acid and calcium. In my research, I found out that the real common causes of kidney stones are mineral imbalance, dehydration, excessive vitamin D consumption, improper diet and gout.

Many people are asking what do kidney stones feel like because just like me, they are worried they might already have these stones. Regardless of the size of the stones, they can cause severe pain on a person. Other symptoms may also come out such as frequent urination, vomiting, nausea, painful urination and excessive sweating.

Many cases of kidney stones can be treated at home using natural ingredients. Based on my research, here are some of the most common home remedies for avoiding or eliminating kidney stones:

1. Apple Cider Vinegar

A mixture of 2 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar mixed in a cup of warm water and a teaspoon of honey is one of the most inexpensive home remedies for kidney stones. Drink this mixture several times a day.

2. Olive oil plus lemon juice

The combination of olive oil and lemon juice is a traditional remedy for gallbladder stones, which may also work as well for kidney stones. The citric acid in lemon juice can help break down the vitamin D component of the kidney stones and stop its growth.

Simply combine 4 tablespoons of fresh lemon juice and equal amounts of oil. Drink this mixture followed by water. Drink it three times a day for three days or more. One drawback of this remedy is that it may not be an effective remedy for large stones.

3. Pomegranate

Pomegranate seeds and juice both contain astringent properties which can help in passing kidney stones. Making this fruit a part of your diet can help you avoid and pass kidney stones.

4. Basil

Basil which is one of the most common herbs used in the kitchen is regarded as a good tonic for the kidney and may also help induce expulsion of stones from the kidney. Steep at least five basil leaves in a cup of boiling water for 10 minutes. Let it cool before drinking. You may also add a teaspoon of honey to the tea for better taste. You could take it in the morning before breakfast for at least five months.

5. Nettle Leaf

Nettle leaf helps promote smooth urination and can be a good remedy for people with kidney stones. It acts as a natural diuretic and can help avoid the formation of kidney stones. To benefit from this remedy, get a cup of hot water and then add 2 teaspoons of dried nettle leaf. Steep for 10 minutes, strain, and then drink the tea. Drink at least two cups of this tea every day for several weeks.

If you do have kidney stones but are afraid you may develop it because of your lifestyle, or if you already have kidney stones that you want to get rid of, these simple home remedies may be able to help you. You may still need to see your doctor for advice.

Remedies for Nodular Acne

I have known of some people who are suffering from various skin problems such as rashes, pimples or acne, which cause them to be less confident about themselves. I even have a classmate in my master’s class who really spend a significant amount of her budget on creams and ointments just to get rid of acne. Thankfully, I don’t have to deal with serious skin problems until now. But one of my greatest fears is to have nodular acne because I have seen how disturbing it can become if a person has it especially on the face.

Acne nodules are inflammatory acne lesions that can spread all over the skin when there is a severe acne breakout. These nodules are large bumps under the skin which can be painful and difficult to treat. They can also last long and may cause acne scars in the end. Aside from the face, acne nodules may also develop in other parts of the body where there is an abundance of sebaceous follicles. They may also appear on the chest, back, neck, face and in severe cases, on the arms, buttocks and thighs.

While those who have a budget normally resort to expensive treatments such as LED light therapy, there are several remedies available that are less expensive. One of them is salicylic acid peel which involves using salicylic acid as a peeling ingredient. This remedy is known to help improve the skin texture of patients with acne. Although it should be done with a doctor’s supervision, you can also do it at home with some safety precautions.

There are also acne medications that can help reduce swelling of the acne nodules. One of them is cortisone which is injected into the acne nodules to control shriveling and avoid scarring. I have also known of oral corticosteroids that can also be used to get rid of acne. And of course, there are topical products containing active ingredients such as salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide which can help shrink the nodules. In some instances, stronger antibiotics may also be administered to kill acne-causing bacteria.

Aside from conventional medications, you may also be able to benefit from using natural remedies such as herbs that contain antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural remedies can also be as effective as commercial treatments and they are also less expensive and generally leave no side effects. Among the known natural remedies you can try are aloe vera and tea tree oil extracts. You can directly apply them on the affected area to promote healing.

I have also known of people who use honey, green tea and ginger to treat their acne, but I am not sure about how they use these products. They are normally prepared as a paste which is then directly applied on the skin.

Different remedies may have different effects on people. One remedy may be effective on one person but not on another. If one remedy does not work for you, you could always with caution try another. Personally, I prefer a natural remedy because it leaves no side effects. But then again, it is a personal choice you have to make.

Common Types of Anxiety that Could Affect You

Feeling nervous at times is normal. I feel nervous every time I make new experiments in the lab. I also feel nervous when I am alone or am in an unfamiliar place. And sometimes, I just feel nervous without any valid reason.

There is nothing wrong with feeling nervous from time to time. It is a normal reaction of the body to stress and more often, it could help a person protect himself from risky situations or to finish a particular undertaking. However, there are people whose nervousness becomes abnormal. I know of some people who have developed anxiety disorders because of frequent unreasonable nervousness. People with problems in dealing with nervousness may also develop anxiety disorders. And it is important to know when nervousness becomes a disorder because it is that time when you should see a doctor.

Here are five of the most common anxiety disorders and how to detect them:


Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PSD) is common among people who have experienced a terrifying ordeal where the person’s safety was threatened. That ordeal could be an accident, disaster, physical or sexual assault or military combat. Signs that a person has PSD include nightmares, lack of sleep and persistent memories of that terrifying event. Also, you will notice them to be easily startled or emotionally detached.


People who have a recurrent and unwanted obsession that leads them to do repetitive behaviors or compulsions are known to have an Obsessive Compulsive Behavior (OCD). It is manifested by behaviors like repeated hand washings, checking locks, cleaning excessively and counting objects, among others. Doing their rituals provides people with OCD temporary relief but seeing a doctor is the best way to deal with the problem.


Some people develop an anxiety over an intense fear that they are being publicly watched or judged. This leads them to develop a Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Sufferers may have a hard time going out socially, attending occasions, or going to school or work.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are characterized by exaggerated tensions, worries and chronic anxiety even when there is nothing to be worried about. Sufferers can be overly concerned about almost anything such as health, work or family issues, and finances. They often manifest irritability, fatigue, headache, hot flashes and sweating.

Relationship Anxiety Disorder

Fear and love are two factors that could lead a person to develop a relationship anxiety disorder. This disorder is derived from GAD and is not yet officially diagnosed. However, this kind of anxiety is very common in many relationships. Symptoms include inappropriate and excessive jealousy, being overly clingy or needy, and being aloof and disinterested about other things. In their relationships, they also always test their partners and are constantly demanding for reassurance from their partners.

Although patients suffering from anxiety disorders may be able to find relief by taking supplements for anxiety, I still strongly suggest seeing a doctor as the best course of action. Among the people who I know to have anxiety disorders, I have seen some improvements on those who regularly see their doctor for advice.

What Causes Salty Taste in Mouth

Salty taste in mouth is not something we encounter every day. But I did experience this odd taste before and I would say that it was not the nicest taste I ever had. Even if there was nothing in my mouth or I did not eat anything salty, the taste was still there. It is good that I only had it for a short time.

Based on some articles I read, I was not alone with this problem. Many people have also experienced having an abnormal taste in their mouth. Some have a metal taste in mouth, others have a sweet taste, and some have experienced a burning sensation in their mouth. These odd tastes in the mouth could go on for days and some even for months or years. It could affect a person’s appetite for food as the taste could linger even while eating other foods that taste differently.

As I was getting to the bottom of this abnormal salty taste, I found out that there are several possible causes for this problem. One is oral problem which could be a gum disease, tooth decay or oral infection. That is why people with lingering salty taste in their mouth are more often advised to see first their dentist before seeing a physician. Treating the oral problem could also put an end to the taste problem.

If oral problem is not detected, the next step is to see your doctor. There are several underlying health conditions that could also affect your sense of taste. These include a digestive disorder like gastroesophageal reflux disease which can be treated with lifestyle changes. A sinus infection could also be the culprit as it can cause salty postnasal drip. This problem can be treated with antibiotics. Certain medicines can also leave a salty taste in the mouth. These include antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, medicines for blood pressure, and sedatives. Additionally, for some women, hormonal changes during menopausal stage may also cause this problem.

Normally, the salty taste issue will just go away once the underlying condition is treated. In the case of certain medications causing it, switching medications is the best resort. But it is important that your doctor first determines your underlying condition. If your doctor is not able to diagnose your problem, you may be referred to a chemosensory center where you would undergo a series of tests and evaluation. This includes a sip, spit and rinse test which can help evaluate your sense of taste. Apart from that, there will also be a test that will evaluate your sense of smell. Smell and taste are closely related. In some cases, people who are perceived to be experiencing an odd taste in their mouth actually have problems with their smell but they don’t realize it.

Having an abnormal taste in the mouth is not something we should take for granted. It may just be a taste for you but it could also be a sign of an underlying and more serious health problem that needs immediate treatment. If you have a salty taste in your mouth and it lingers for several days, it is best to see your dentist or physician as soon as possible.

5 Reasons You Could Have Itchy Armpits

I have seen numerous times people scratching their armpits in public. For me, that is something gross and should be done privately. But who can resist scratching an itchy armpit? In a casual conversation with one of my friends, someone mentioned who she was scratching her itchy armpits in public and how it was hard to control.

Itchy armpit is not unusual since you might have also seen people unknowingly scratching their armpits. It is just as common as people having pain in right arm or left arm. But even if it is common, it is not normal. In fact, your armpits should not itch at all if they are healthy. If they start to itch recently, perhaps there have been some recent changes in your lifestyle or there could be something wrong with your health.

There are at least five factors that can cause a person’s armpits to itch. Knowing them is the best approach towards prevention:

1. Lack of proper hygiene

Proper hygiene requires washing of your armpits twice a day, preferably once in the morning and once before sleeping. Sweat and dirt collect in the armpits. If you don’t bath regularly and clean your armpits with soap, they will become an ideal breeding ground for bacteria which can cause itchiness. Additionally, if you engage in physical activities that cause you to sweat, it is also important to wash your armpits afterwards to eliminate bacteria to thrive in them.

2. Candida yeast infection

The human body naturally produces Candida Albicans which is a type of yeast. They are not harmful to the body. However, sometimes there will be an overgrowth of this yeast which will normally occur in moist places such as the groin and armpits. Overgrowth can cause infection including rashes. A person may then suffer from itchiness in the affected area. But this condition can be treated using anti-fungal medications.

3. Deodorants and antiperspirants

For some people, their deodorant or antiperspirant is what’s causing them to itch. The product they are using may contain ingredients that they are allergic to. In this case, itching may stop by switching to another product. In some cases, a person may not be allergic to the product itself but instead, the product is causing a blockage in the sweat glands which would cause rashes and red bumps that can be itchy.

4. Hyperhidrosis

A person who sweats profusely may suffer from a condition called hyperhidrosis. Excessive sweating can cause bacteria or yeast overgrowth in the armpits, which in turn causes itchiness. There is no clear treatment for hyperhidrosis so the best recourse for a person having this condition is to wash the armpits more often.

5. Dermatitis

You could also have itching armpits if you have dermatitis. Dermatitis is an inflammation caused by an allergic reaction to certain personal care products such as deodorants and soaps. Certain antibiotics may also cause it. Symptoms include itchiness, redness of the skin and lesion.

An itchy armpit is an occurrence that you want to avoid. Basically, prevention just shows how much you give attention to cleaning your armpits. But if you already are suffering from this problem, it would be good to consult your doctor about it than to suffer in silence.

8 Methods Commonly Used By a Controlling Partner

You know that you are in a healthy relationship when both you and your partner are in control of it. That means, neither is controlling or being controlled. But I have seen a lot of women including some of my friends being manipulated by their controlling boyfriend. Having a controlling partner is not healthy in a relationship because it normally hinders the person being controlled from personal growth and happiness. Additionally, being in a controlling relationship is something you don’t want to be in because it can be hard to get out of the relationship once you are already too involved with the other person.

Anyone can get trapped in a controlling relationship without the person knowing it. And it is something I like to avoid myself. Just like a person with an only child syndrome, a controlling partner manifests several characteristics that can give you an idea about his or her personality. And more often, he or she uses subtle ways to control the other person. It would be good to know the methods commonly used by a controller so as to avoid falling victim with his or her controlling attitude.

According to Matthew McKay who works as a clinical psychologist and a co-author of Couple Skills, there are eight aversive methods used by controllers to take charge of their relationship, which are as follows:

  1. Discounting

A controlling person normally sends a message that the needs of his or her partner are invalid, unimportant or illegitimate, to shame the other person into submission.

  1. Withdrawal or Abandonment

Another popular technique of a controller is to manipulate the other person to what the controller wants or else would leave. Most partners who are threatened with abandonment are willing to do what the controller wants to avoid being left.

  1. Threatening Behavior

According to Dr. MacKay, this method is perhaps the most serious as it sends a message of hurting the other person emotionally or physically unless the wishes of the controlling person are granted.

  1. Blaming

A person who always blames his or her partner for any fault in the relationship is a controlling person.

5 & 6. Belittling and Guilt-tripping

In this method, the controlling partner conveys a message that the other person is unfair and inconsiderate in the relationship.

  1. Derailing

Derailing is when the controlling partner changes or shifts the focus of the conversation when confronted with the needs of the other person. This can be frustrating to the person being controlled as it makes it difficult to express his or her real feelings about the relationship. It also conveys a message that the needs of the other person are not worth talking about.

  1. Taking Away

Finally, to manipulate his or her partner, a controlling person attempts to withdraw any kind of support whether financially or emotionally if his or her needs or wants are not followed.

I certainly dislike people who try to control or manipulate others. If you see any of these behaviors in your boyfriend or girlfriend, you might want to or should reconsider your relationship if it is really worth it or not. And don’t think that you can change your controlling partner at a future time because most often, it ends up as wishful thinking. Everyone deserves a happy relationship. To achieve this, avoid a controlling person.

Lionhead Bunnies: What You Need to Know to Own One

Pets are becoming an increasingly popular member of many households. Growing up as a child, I was also surrounded by house pets. May people I know own a dog or a cat, but rarely do I know someone who owns a domestic bunny or rabbit. They say that most domestic rabbits or bunny breeds require just as much care and maintenance as most cats and dogs, which led me to think that bunnies are not that difficult to have. If any of you are interested to own a bunny, one particular breed that you could try is the cute-looking lionhead bunnies. I have heard a lot of good things about this breed which makes them a good house pet.

Lionhead rabbits are still new among the domesticated rabbit breeds, but more and more hobbyists are interested to raise them for breeding or as pets. They got their name because of their unique flaunt mane which looks similar to a lion. This breed is a cross between a Belgian Dwarf and a Swiss Fox. Having a dwarf parent, it gives these rabbits a small body structure with a weight that ranges between 2.5 and 4 pounds. Their ears can measure up to 3.5 inches in length and it has a mane that is normally two inches thicker than its fur. Depending on the combination of genes, their mane can be single or double. They also come in a range of colors including white, gray and brown.


Lionheads are admired for their gentle and friendly attitude. They are also inquisitive and like to play. If well-trained and given adequate attention from a young age, they can even be a more friendly pet which likes to be cuddled and become a good companion. Also, this breed of rabbit can be easily litter-trained as they are naturally intelligent.


Double mane lionheads require more combing than single mane lionheads as their thick fur are prone to developing knots. Combing can be done several times each week using a mat breaker to prevent mats from getting too large. More frequent grooming is required during shedding time because they are prone to wool-bock.


Feeding lionheads are just the same with other rabbits. Fresh timothy hay should be made available at all times together with low-protein pellets. Fresh vegetables and fruits such as pineapple and papaya also make an excellent supplement to their diet to boost their immune system. Treats are okay but should be minimized as they can cause loose stool.

Health Problems

As lionheads grow into adulthood, some female rabbits can shed their mane wool. It is a kind of disorder that many breeders try to prevent. But this problem can be hardly detected among newborn kits unless you know the medical history of their mother, as this disorder tends to be genetics.

Lionheads are still a new breed and limited amount of information are available about them. But the information mentioned here should be useful for anyone who would like to own this breed of rabbits.

5 Serious Diseases Affecting Cats

Aside from dogs, cats are also considered as one of the most popular pets that you can find in many homes. I have several friends who own a cat or two. One good thing about these animals is that they are naturally clean, quiet and also loyal. And whoever owns a cat knows that this favorite house pet also needs adequate attention especially when it comes to their general health condition.

As I studied more about biology, I have learned that there are so many things in common between humans and animals. Among them are the various diseases affecting humans that can also affect animals, cats in particular. And a number of these diseases are considered to be serious and life-threatening to cats. I have listed five of the most common diseases to serve as a reference for those who own a cat or are planning to own one:

  1. Renal Failure

Renal failure is considered to be one of the leading causes of fatalities among older cats. Renal failure is caused by kidney diseases which may also develop due to age and genetic or environmental factors. Feline renal failure may be acute (sudden kidney failure) or chronic (progressive kidney deterioration). Symptoms of kidney disease that may lead to renal failure include vomiting, nausea, excessive urination, frequent drinking, grinding sound in the jaw, and loss of appetite which normally leads to weight loss. You may also notice that your cat smells like ammonia or is getting lethargic. The sooner that your cat gets treatment, the better is its chances to live longer despite the fact that feline diseases have no cure.

  1. Rabies

According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, cats have more cases of rabies than any other domestic animal in the US. And feline rabies is considered to be a serious and dangerous disease because it can be passed on not only to other cats but also to humans through their bites. Symptoms of rabies in cats include drooling, yowling, fever, conjunctivitis, poor coordination, strange behavior, depression and weight loss. This disease has no cure and ultimately, it can lead to a cat’s death. Fortunately, it can be prevented through vaccination and by keeping your cat indoors to avoid contact with wild animals which are common carriers of rabies.

  1. Cardiomyopathy

This type of disease is the most common form of heart disease that can affect cats. It is also one of the leading causes of why a significant number of cats die suddenly. And to make this condition worse, there are only a few noticeable symptoms of this disease, making it hard for owners to detect. The best way to detect this condition is to have your cat checked by your veterinarian at least once every year.

  1. Diabetes

Diabetes is one of the serious conditions in cats, but it can be detected from its symptoms which include frequent urination, abnormally big appetite, increased thirst and frequent drinking, and weight loss. Once diagnosed, your veterinarian would usually recommend a special diet plan for your cat to manage the condition.

  1. Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis in cats is a condition that may be caused by a number of factors including parasites, drug reaction, infection and trauma. However, 90 percent of the reported cases have no definite cause. Among the different breeds of cats, Siamese cats have a genetic predisposition to this problem. Common symptoms include lethargy, poor appetite, dehydration and lower than normal body temperature. Diagnosing this problem can be difficult even among veterinarians, but a series of tests which include ultrasound and blood test can help support the diagnosis. It is important that this condition would receive immediate treatment as it can lead to kidney or respiratory failure and ultimately death.

There are many other serious diseases that can affect cats that I have not included in the list such as roundworms in cats or infections in cats because many owners are already knowledgeable about these problems. If you are really serious about keeping your cat in good health, I would recommend searching also for diseases that are inherent to the breed of cat you have. The more knowledgeable you are to the diseases that can affect your pet, the better you can keep your cat in healthy condition.

Tingling Feet: What Does It Tell?

tingling feet

After sitting down for a long time with legs in a crossed position, perhaps many of you have already experienced that tingling feet or “pins and needles” sensation. I have experienced it for countless of times already. As I delved more into this occurrence, I learned that the medical term for it is paresthesia, a common condition that normally goes on its own after several minutes or once the pressure in the legs is relieved. However, I was alarmed that in some instances, paresthesia may also be a sign of a more serious condition that needs medical attention. It is not like a case of ordinary sprained foot or other foot condition where you can almost always assume that it is what you think it is.

Since paresthesia is very common, it would be good to check out what this kind of condition might tell you about your health.

Paresthesia Defined

Paresthesia is oftentimes caused by putting too much pressure on the nerves which can happen when you sit on your feet or cross your legs for a long time. The sensation is normally mild and temporary and does not need treatment.

Serious Causes of Paresthesia

If paresthesia is just temporary and you know what causes it, there should be no reason to worry. However, if you have persisting paresthesia and you have no idea what is causing it, you should consider visiting a podiatrist because you could already be suffering from a more serious condition which may be one or more of the following:

  • Nerve dysfunction
  • Peripheral neuropathy or nerve damage
  • Nerve entrapment
  • Systemic diseases such as multiple sclerosis or hypothyroidism
  • Vitamin deficiencies
  • Poor blood circulation
  • Injury or trauma to the nerve
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Infection such as shingles
  • Diabetes
  • Stroke or seizure
  • Autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome
  • Ruptured disc
  • Others such as side effects of medication, alcoholism and toxic exposure

More often, serious cases of paresthesia are also accompanied by other symptoms such as pain, itchiness, muscle spasms, numbness, dizziness, changes in vision, walking difficulty, weakness, loss of consciousness, confusion, rashes, and loss of bladder or bowel control. In case any of these symptoms comes with paresthesia, your condition should be taken more seriously and be checked by a podiatrist.

Treatment for Paresthesia

Treatment for serious cases of paresthesia generally depends on its underlying cause which must first be correctly identified by your doctor. Once the underlying condition is determined and treated, the tingling sensation will normally just go away with it. For instance, if it is caused by diabetes, the tingling sensation will normally lessen once you are able to manage your sugar level. For ordinary paresthesia, there is no treatment for it but can easily be prevented by finding a more comfortable sitting position that will not put much pressure on your feet.

Most people would experience a tingling sensation in their feet at any point in their life and it may occur more than just once. It is important that you know what a feet tingling sensation is telling you as it may either be an ordinary occurrence or a condition that requires immediate medical attention.


8 Areas of Compatibility for a Healthy Relationship

Perhaps most, if not all of us, desire to have a happy and long-lasting relationship with the person we love. Unfortunately, a fairy tale happy ending is not always true in the real sense. I have seen so many relationships among celebrities, friends and even families get broken because of compatibility issues. I also heard how MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) personality assessment influences some people in their relationships. For instance, many consider INFJ relationships and INFP relationships as among the most successful and long-lasting relationships because of the many positive traits INFJs and INFPs have. It is why many look forward to meeting a person with these types of personality.

infp relationshipsTo some extent, finding a partner based on MBTI assessment can have some benefits. But in addition to that, it is also important to know the different aspects of a relationship where compatibility is needed.

  1. Intimacy. Personal and sexual intimacy is vital for a healthy relationship. Although every couple has different needs for intimacy, it is important for both partners to achieve the same level of satisfaction in these areas.
  2. Conversation. While it may be okay in a relationship where one partner does most of the talking while the other just listens, it is even better if there is a balance as to who listens and who does the talking. Compatibility in this area is important since a good conversation is a key to a healthy relationship.
  3. Philosophy. Compatibility in your philosophy does not mean that you have to have the same religious, political or social views. It just means that you have to share similarities on what truly matters in life such as family and others.
  4. Relaxation. It is natural for men and women to have varying forms of relaxation. While some women find it relaxing to read books, some men may find it boring. But in a relationship, it is important that you should find at least tolerable what your partner considers as relaxing.
  5. Interests. Having different interests may rarely be a cause of relationship breakups but sharing the same interests can help bind your relationship.
  6. Ambition. Your partner may have a different ambition as you have but it is important that you should share similarities in your ultimate goal. For instance, your partner might have the ambition to own a nice car and live in the city while your ambition is to live a simple life in the country. In this case, your relationship might not work because of your diametrically opposite goals.
  7. Respect. It is said that the true measure of relationship compatibility is the level of respect each partner has for the other person.
  1. Passion. Feeling passionate to each other can help you feel happy and more attached to your partner.

If you have experienced no compatibility issues in most of these areas, then you are fortunate because it is a good sign that you are into a healthy relationship. It is important to note that if you desire to be in a long-lasting relationship, you should exert an effort to be compatible with your partner in the areas listed above.

Bronchitis Vs Pneumonia: How Do They Differ?

Bronchitis and pneumonia are two of the most common respiratory problems affecting many people both young and old. But many get confused about these two as they share a number of seemingly similar symptoms. As I study more about biology, I became aware that they are way completely different. It is important that people should know their differences because it concerns their health. Only proper diagnosis can lead to proper treatment.

Here is a more detailed presentation of the differences between bronchitis vs pneumonia.


Bronchitis is an inflammation in the bronchial tubes or bronchi, a part of the respiratory system responsible for carrying air into the lungs. Two types of bronchitis are acute and chronic bronchitis. Pneumonia, on the other hand, is an infection affecting the tissues of the lungs which more often results to the accumulation of pus or fluid in the air sacs. Between the two, pneumonia is a more serious condition especially since it affects older people.

Risk Factors and Causes


Acute bronchitis is commonly caused by viral or bacterial infections. It was also observed that people who have suffered from respiratory infections or colds are more likely to develop acute bronchitis. As for chronic bronchitis, it normally develops as a result of long-term inflammation and irritation of the bronchi, more commonly as a result of smoking. Exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes, toxic fumes and dust also poses the same risk of developing this condition.


Pneumonia may be caused by a number of factors including viral or bacterial infection, parasites, fungi, exposure to pollutants and inhalation of toxic substances. People who suffer from flu complications may also develop pneumonia. In addition, other causes of pneumonia include lung injury, health conditions that compromise the immune system, exposure to pollutants such as smoke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the use of inhaled corticosteroids for a long period of time.


1. Cough


  • Dry cough which initially does not produce mucus
  • Yellow, green or clear mucus may start appearing after a few days of dry cough
  • Mucus may have traces of blood


  • Cough brings up mucus right from the start
  • Mucus may be green, rusty or tainted with blood

2. Fever


  • Fever, if present, is only mild


  • Fever is often 101 degrees Fahrenheit or higher

3. Other Symptoms


  • Chest x-ray usually appears normal
  • Condition goes away in three weeks or less


  • Breathing may be recorded at a rate of more than 24 breaths per minute
  • Heart rate may reach higher than 100 beats per minute
  • Chills
  • Chest x-ray appears abnormal
  • May last for more than three weeks



Antibiotics are one of the usual bronchitis remedies if the condition is caused by bacterial infection, while treatment for bronchitis caused by viral infection depends on the type of virus. In addition, inhalers and certain medications for inflammation are also prescribed for patients with chronic bronchitis. In some cases, pulmonary rehabilitation that involves an exercise program for breathing may also be recommended.


The same with bronchitis, if the pneumonia is caused by bacteria, treatment involves taking antibiotics. For viral pneumonia, antiviral drugs are given. Cough medication are also often given as a relief for congestion.

It is easy to confuse one condition over the other if you are not aware of the symptoms of bronchitis and pneumonia. But regardless of the condition you may be suffering from, you will need to see your doctor as soon as possible.

Shoulder Subluxation: A General Overview

As I spend hours in the laboratory to do my research, I normally suffer from back or shoulder pain at the end of the day. Perhaps many people also suffer from these same problems once in a while due to the nature of their work or daily routine. However, just like back pain, shoulder pain may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition other than strenuous work. In fact, I just learned that pain in left shoulder may be a sign of heart attack.

One of the more common underlying conditions of shoulder pain is shoulder subluxation. This condition is similar to shoulder dislocation but the latter is just more permanent. Shoulder subluxation is normally a partial or temporary problem that causes instability in the shoulder joint.


Subluxations of the shoulder normally results from a fall or heavy blow on the shoulder or when the arm is severely twisted. Certain occupations such as football and boxing also put athletes at more risk of this condition. In additions, people who have suffered from previous injuries that have possibly loosened the ligaments as well as people with naturally loose ligaments are more prone to this condition.


  • Loss of sensation on the affected shoulder joint
  • Varying pain during activities from mild to severe
  • Mild to severe shoulder instability
  • Numbness or weakness in the arm or shoulder

Because of the similarities of some of its symptoms with rotator cuff tear or bursitis, subluxations are often mistaken for any of these two conditions. To aid in the correct diagnosis, your doctor will normally ask your medical history, lifestyle and daily routine, as well as conduct a series of physical examinations. Oftentimes, patients are also requested to have an MRI scan to support diagnosis.


  1. Initial treatment for subluxations in the shoulder initially involves applying ice pack on the affected shoulder joint to reduce swelling and to soothe the pain. This can be done for about 10 to 15 minutes each time for several times a day.
  2. To reduce inflammation and persistent pain, over-the-counter medication or NSAIDs may also be recommended by your doctor.
  3. Rest is also an important part of the treatment process. You should avoid doing regular activities that may possibly worsen your condition or hinder your recovery. Wearing a sling can greatly help during this period. However, it is important to also avoid completely immobilizing the affected joint as it can lead to frozen shoulder or adhesive capsulitis.
  4. When the patient’s condition has improved, treatment is normally followed by exercises that can help strengthen the rotator cuff muscles. An independent therapist will be able to design an ideal exercise program for you with the approval of your doctor.
  5. For cases of repeated subluxations, surgery may be necessary to tighten the ligaments.

Shoulder pain may be a normal condition, but if it is often recurring and is causing you much pain and discomfort, it is best to see your doctor. You may already be experiencing some serious underlying conditions that need immediate attention by your healthcare provider.

The Best Shoes for Bunions

One of the important things in my continuous studies of human nature is that some illnesses are caused by hereditary factors. Some of these diseases are not just as popular as others. In particular, I found it interesting to learn more about bunions. Perhaps, it is one of the minor health problems that many people are not very proud to have. Of course, who would like to admit to having odd-looking feet?

Bunions are something new to most people. A bunion is a bony bump at the base joint of your big toe. It causes the big toe to become swollen, red or sore. Some people are not aware of what causes bunions until they already have it. Aside from hereditary factors, having flatfeet, foot injuries, arthritis and being engaged in activities that put much pressure on the feet may also cause this disease. However, the most common cause is constantly wearing ill-fitting or tight-fitting footwear.

When you already have bunions, wearing the best shoes for bunions can make a big difference. I researched about some important considerations when choosing shoes for bunions and they are summarized below:

Shoe Width

When buying a new pair of shoes, the shoe width is an important consideration. Be sure that the shoes you are considering to buy have enough room on the sides to allow additional room for a bunion.


Shoes that are made from canvas or mesh type materials normally allow for more stretching than other types. As you use these types of shoes, they will become more comfortable around your bunion because of the stretching.

Larger Shoe Size

Sometimes, going 1 size larger can make a big difference in terms of comfort when you have a bunion. In this case, you may have to use insoles to stop your shoe from slipping, but that additional toe space area can greatly help in giving you comfort especially when walking.

No to Pointed Shoes

For women, pointed shoes may be stylish but they are not the best shoes if you have bunions or are at risk of developing them because of hereditary factors. The very limited space around the toes forces the toes to be cramped together, putting pressure on the toe joints, aggravating bunions. Instead of pointed shoes, choose those that have a round or square toe area for more toe room.

No to High Heels

Aside from pointed shoes, high-heeled shoes are also another culprit for bunions in women. Gravity causes the feet to be pushed down, causing much pressure on the toes. If you don’t have bunions yet, it may cause a bunion to develop. If you already have one, it can aggravate the condition.

The general rule when choosing shoes for bunions is shoes that make your feet feel relaxed and comfortable. Don’t choose your shoes just for fashion but also for comfort. This is especially true for people like me who spend several hours standing. It is not yet too late to do something to avoid bunions. Shop for a comfortable pair of shoes and it will make a big difference for your toes.